CINE: Normal Speakers


These two people spoke with their jaw free to move, and with jaw movement constrained.  The constraint occured when they held a bite-block between their upper and lower molars.  In the latter condition, they had to adjust lip and tongue movements in order achieve the spatial-temporal goals used when the jaw was free to move.

Speaker No. 1: A 30 year old woman with no history of abnormal communication.  This was the first time she had spoken with a bite-block.  In counting from 1-10, it appeared that she had made the necessary adjustments by the number 6. See Caveat below.

Speaker No. 2: A 45 year old man with no history of abnormal communication. He had used a bite-block for many years, and a variety of speaking tasks. It appeared that he adjusted to the jaw constraint when he first started to speak with the bite-block in place.  See caveat below.

A Caveat: There appeared to be some distortion of [s] and [z] productions for both speakers. They could not achieve a complete adjustment of the tongue-tip position for these sounds.  It should be noted that the bite-block resulted in a 16mm distance between the upper and lower incisors.  Given the speakers spoke at the same rate for both conditions, the precise tongue-tip positioning for [s] and [z] appeared “out of reach” in the bite-block condition.

ASIDE: If you’ve never considered the velopharynx as an articulator, I think you will after viewing these cines. For example, look at its rapid closing and opening as the speaker repeated “pamper.”

Click to see the You Tube video of Cinefluoroscopy: Two Normal Speakers